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2017-06-12

北約集體防禦

川普5/25到北約高峰會,絕口不提〈北大西洋公約〉第5條。引起盟邦疑慮。

德國在5/28呼籲:「我們可以信靠別人的時代,在相當程度上已經過去,這是我過去幾天的體驗。」[1]
幾天後新聞報導:美國總統川普九日公開承諾,美國將信守〈北大西洋公約〉第五條的集體防衛條款。
〈北大西洋公約〉(The North Atlantic Treaty)[2] 1949.04.04DC簽署。
第五條
The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.
各方同意,在歐洲或北美對其中一方或多方的武裝攻擊,應被視為對全部簽約方的攻擊;因此他們同意,若發生此種武裝襲擊,每一方應立即行使個別或〈聯合國憲章〉第51條所承認的集體自衛,協助遭到侵害的一方或多方個人單方面,並與其他締約方一致採取其認為必要的行動,包括使用武裝力量,恢復和維護北大西洋地區的安全。
Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security.
任何此類武裝襲擊及因此而採取的一切措施,應立即向安全理事會報告。當安理會採取必要措施恢復和維持國際和平與安全時,這種措施將終止。

但,有關集體防禦在稍早的1948.03.17有〈布魯塞爾條約〉(比利時、法蘭西共和國、法蘭西聯盟、盧森堡、荷蘭、聯合王國與海外屬地),是在第四條。這裡面沒有美國。
Article IV
If any of the High Contracting Parties should be the object of an armed attack in Europe, the other High Contracting Parties will, in accordance with the provisions of Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, afford the Party so attacked all the military and other aid and assistance in their power.[3]
第四條
若任一締約方在歐洲成為遭受武裝襲擊的對象,其他締約國有權按照〈聯合國憲章〉第51條規定,提供該方因攻擊之一切軍事和其他援助與協助。



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